Wednesday, July 27, 2011

Federal Debt Facts and Figures

There is quite a bit of misinformation floating around that seems to be clouding the U.S. debt debate.  Here are the facts about U.S. debt, spending, and taxes.  Pick a side based on the real story, not the political spin.

First up, adding some context to the U.S. debt:

From the CIA World Factbook, here are the top 50 countries by debt level (as of 2010).

RankCountryDebt %GDP
2Saint Kitts and Nevis185
13Sri Lanka86.7
23United Kingdom76.5
28Cote d'lvoire63.3
37United States58.9
46El Salvador55

The United States is actually doing quite well compared to most of Europe and Japan.

Here is some historical context.

**from the Wikimedia Commons

The Federal debt is certainly creeping up, but we are not exactly at unprecedented levels yet.

Second, how bad is the spending?

Federal Spending vs GDP History - from the Wikimedia Commons

Federal Spending History by Category - from the Wikimedia Commons

Although spending in raw dollars is going up, spending as a percentage of GDP has been roughly flat for the past 40 years or so.

And finally, a look at taxes:

Federal Income Tax Rate History - from the Wikimedia Commons

Federal Tax History as a Percentage of GDP - from the Office of Management and Budget

2010/11 saw the lowest tax rates since the 1940's and the lowest taxes as a percentage of GDP since 1950.

In summary, it appears we have both a spending “problem” and a revenue “problem”, however when compared to the rest of the industrialized world, we aren’t doing too bad.  The takeaway here is that a long term solution is certainly warranted, but we are not in immediate danger of default as in the case of Greece and other high %GDP countries.  Furthermore, attempting to reduce deficits in the middle of an economic downturn is not only difficult, but potentially self defeating. Tax revenues are lower, which is due in part to tax cuts, but also largely to the high unemployment rate.  Meanwhile, government spending is up, due in part to political lobbying, but also largely to the high number of people collecting entitlements (because of the high unemployment rate).  The best thing we can do for the deficit is to hurry along economic recovery as fast as possible.  Doing anything that threatens economic recovery is a very bad idea.

Further Reading

An e xcellent discussion on whether we have a spending problem or a revenue problem can be found here:

Tuesday, May 24, 2011

The same old federal budget debate ignoring the People's Budget

There is nothing more ideologically polarizing than the Federal Budget.  Each year, the debate and ultimate passage (or not) of the Federal budget largely follows party lines and whoever happens to control the government.  The ideological fighting is particularly fierce with the budget due to the huge potential to impact the implementation of rules, regulations, and the functioning of government agencies.  Generally, Republican budgets tend to lower taxes, sustain or increase defense and security spending, and cut or eliminate spending on social programs.  Historically, Democratic budgets have sought the opposite: higher taxes, less spending on defense and security, and more spending on social programs.  However, the past 10 years have seen a shift on the Democratic side more in line with the popular opinion that no one likes taxes pr terrorists.  Modern Democratic budgets generally mirror most if not all of the Republican tax rates and defense/security spending, while continuing to support more spending on social programs.  Republicans have also found it harder than they thought to cut favored social programs, and what sounds good at the podium doesn’t always end up being as easy on paper subjected to the scrutiny of analysts.  Consequently, year after year, regardless of which party won the latest election, taxes go down, and spending goes up.  The end result of course is spiraling debt.

America’s debt problem isn’t exactly new.  Politicians and the public alike have been debating it for the better part of 60 years with only brief reprieves here and there (the last one being in the late 1990’s when Clinton ran a surplus).  The current debt crisis is eliciting the same old solutions from the two parties.  The 2012 Republican budget written by Paul Ryan and passed by the House of Representatives calls for lower taxes (lower than current 60 year lows) and reduced spending on social programs, particularly Medicare, which he plans to privatize.  Meanwhile, the Democratic response from President Obama in the White House budget proposal calls for largely the same tax rate (minor increase for the wealthy) with no significant cuts to spending on anything.  As much as people hate government deficits, they hate taxes and cuts to their services even more. Both parties recognize this, and so the latest budget proposals are nothing more than a modern take on the same old same old.  The only new development as of late is the willingness of the Republican Party to make serious cuts to Medicare despite potential backlash from their voting base.  While both the Republican and Democratic budgets have the potential to help the deficit in the long haul, neither one radically alters the fundamental issues that are causing the deficits in the first place.  This article was written in the Spring of 2011, but it might as well be 1991, or 1981.

The Congressional Progressive Caucus (CPC) is a group of progressive Democrats who have put together their own budget proposal that offers something new to tired old debate, and actually stands a chance of fixing some of the fundamental problems causing the large deficits in the first place.  The People’s Budget, as they’ve called it, breaks from lines of both parties by raising taxes and cutting spending on defense and healthcare.  The budget calls for the creation of new tax brackets and tax codes to hit the extremely wealthy at much higher rates, the rapid drawdown of overseas military operations as well as domestic military R&D spending, and the overhaul of the healthcare industry (again).  The healthcare overhaul is particularly interesting in that it achieves spending reductions through the implementation of single payer government run insurance.  The People’s Budget basically reads like an old fashioned Democratic budget, before change of heart over the last 10 years.  It contains many unpopular elements, but makes the hard choices necessary to really balance the budget.  People will decry the higher taxes, the cuts to defense, the restructuring of healthcare.  They will want everything to stay as it was, while continuing to demand a magical reduction in deficits.  There’s a popular quote from somewhere that says if both sides hate it, you know it’s the right decision.

Congressional Progressive Caucus, The People's Budget Deficit Forcast

The plan has attracted support from various economists and economic publications, and is a fan favorite in blogs and forums across the internet.  The reception by the mainstream media and public however is largely unknown because no one is talking about it. President Obama and Republicans in Congress have completely ignored the fact that the CPC Peoples Budget even exists, and continue to tout their own plans.   Some specialized money/economy/business media outlets have reported on it, but the mainstream news has yet to mention it to the masses.  A quick google search gives a hint of what the potential mainstream response to the People’s Budget may be.  Republican detractors have caught wind of the tax hikes and dismissed the whole budget, apparently before they even got to the single payer insurance part, which they will equally hate.  Byron York of the Washington Examiner summed it up as “The liberals plan: gut defense and tax tax tax”.  Democrats largely seem ho-hum on the whole idea.  They don’t like all the government debt, but they are reluctant to cut spending or raise taxes.  And so the People’s Budget has failed to gain much traction and has little chance of ever being implemented.

So where does that leave us?  My guess is that the 2012 budget debate will drag on until most of the way through 2013 and eventually pass in a watered down form that doesn’t do anything to solve any of the budget problems.  And then politicians can do it all again with the 2013 budget, and the 2014, and so on.  Ironically, the huge explosion of government debt over the last two years was driven largely by the recession and high unemployment.  Fewer people paying taxes plus more people receiving financial assistance equals a larger deficit. As the unemployment rate drops in the coming years, the deficit will go down on its own.  Both sides will claim credit in the next election cycle, and blame the other when it happens all over again in the next recession (2016’ish if the pattern holds).  Nothing ever changes.


Wednesday, May 11, 2011

Next Generation of Home Automation with Android@Home

Home automation has been around for a while.  Dozens of different companies, technologies, and standards have existed for years that allow you to control various devices around the home with a single remote of some sort.  Z-wave, Zigbee, Insteon, and X10 are just a few examples of the many technologies that all have their own special brand of wireless signal and interface protocol.  These existing automation technologies are generally just glorified on/off switches for things that plug-in to wall outlets.  Some of the more advanced (and expensive) solutions will interface with home security systems for another level of control.  None of the competing technologies will talk to each other of course, so once you choose a brand, you’re stuck with that brand for everything.  The more serious problem though is that the industry as a whole doesn’t know what to make of it all.    Major home appliance makers like GE, Kenmore etc. are not going to integrate automation technologies with their products until there is a clear “winner” to rally behind.  Alas, there is much untapped potential in home automation that has yet to be realized.


Google recently announced its plans to standardize and integrate home automation with its Android platform.  Android@Home is yet another wireless interface technology, but this time it comes with a big name company behind it.  Google is providing a protocol standard on the 900 MHz band along with hardware and software reference designs that integrate with Android smartphones/tablets/whatever else Android is on nowadays.  Google is also providing a programming API that makes it easy for software developers to write programs using the new protocol.  This should translate into a host of Android apps along with faster adoption by mainstream appliance makers.  At a minimum, you should be able to turn the lights on and off with your Android smartphone.  LightingScience has created LED lightbulbs that work with the Android@Home standard.  That by itself isn’t particulalrly impressive, we can do that already with the previously mentioned technologies.  But if all goes well however, you may be able to talk to your refrigerator, washing machine, furnace/AC, lawn sprinkler, porch light, mailbox, and everything else vendors will dream up on your smartphone as well.  That is when things will get interesting.


[caption id="attachment_323" align="aligncenter" width="600" caption="Android@Home"][/caption]


The Android@Home functionality is much more than simple on/off commands.  The API allows for all sorts of information to be passed throughout the Android@Home network.  You’ll be able to see how much time is left on the washing machine, how much milk is left in the fridge, and how much energy your AC is wasting from anywhere right on your cell phone.  Theoretically, you could do this a few ways.  There is talk of a smartphone-to-900MHz adapter that would allow you to interface with Android@Home devices directly.  More convenient though is the Android@Home media hub that bridges the 900 MHz network with your regular home network (wired/wireless ethernet).  This would allow your cell phone to control devices within your home from anywhere.  The 900 MHz wireless protocol has enough bandwidth to pass audio and video as well as allowing for things like surveillance cameras to stream video to your phone.  Google is also pushing a new audio streaming service that is compatible with Android@Home and allows users to stream music to pretty much any audio device from the “cloud”.


The capabilities of Android@Home are not necessarily new.  You can do pretty much everything in the preceding paragraph already if you have enough money, knowledge and access to boutique brands, but it is far from mainstream or standardized.  The real breakthrough here is that a major company is taking the reigns and pushing one integrated solution that everyone else can rally behind.  Hopefully they will.  If they don’t, then Android@Home will end up being another Z-Wave or Zigbee, meaning everyone will forget about it.







Tuesday, May 10, 2011

Education in America - job salary by field of employment

One of the most sought after but least discussed topics in the workplace is exactly how much a particular position pays on average compared to other jobs in the same or different fields.   Colleges often advertise the value of an education in America in terms of how much more a college graduate can earn versus a high school graduate, but that doesn't really give any specific real world information. The news media loves to publish the occasional "top jobs" list but they are very high level and cursory and intended more as entertainment than reference information.  In previous articles on education in America, the percentage of college graduates by field was presented, as well as the unemployment rate by field.  Here we look at salary and the number of people employed by field.

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics is the only real go-to source for information on jobs, employment, and salaries.  Unfortunately, pulling information out of their database to make meaningful comparisons to was a bit of a chore.  But here it is (click on plots to view full size):

[caption id="attachment_308" align="aligncenter" width="640" caption="Salary by Job Field, 2009 and 1999"][/caption]

Not surprisingly, management pays the most, followed by law, engineering and healthcare fields.

[caption id="attachment_309" align="aligncenter" width="640" caption="Number of employees by job field, 2009 and 1999"][/caption]

Evidently there are a ton of office administrative support people out there, but very few cops (protective services).  Finally, the most meaningful chart shows the trends in these professions over the last 10 years.

[caption id="attachment_310" align="aligncenter" width="640" caption="Salary and employment growth by job field, 1999 to 2009"][/caption]

Every profession saw salary increases from 1999 to 2009.  For reference, inflation over that same time period was 28%. So in reality, some of the jobs towards the right of the plot more or less broke even, while personal care and services actually lost money.  The raw number of managers has actually decreased over the last 10 years, however their salaries have increased faster than any other profession.  The negative employment percentages towards the right of the graph could be attributed to the recession and high unemployment rate in 2009.

Finally, the high level categories in the previous plots don't capture the whole picture.  There is quite a bit of variation in job types and salaries within each category.  Below is a detailed table highlighting the main jobs in each category.  I had to do some pruning and cleanup on the raw data out of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.  Only the main and/or easily recognizable jobs in each field are listed, so the totals for each field are more than the sum of the jobs listed below them.


20091999% Change
Title# EmployedAverage Salary# EmployedAverage Salary# EmployedAverage Salary
All Occupations130,647,61043,460
Chief executives297,640167,280597,060101,240-50%65%
General and operations managers1,689,680110,5502,305,61065,910-27%68%
Marketing managers169,330120,070202,71071,010-16%69%
Sales managers328,980111,570367,64069,560-11%60%
Financial managers495,180113,730646,05069,100-23%65%
Construction managers204,76093,290240,49060,160-15%55%
Engineering managers178,110122,810248,21081,560-28%51%
Business and Financial6,063,67065,9004,361,98046,10039%43%
Claims adjusters, examiners, and investigators273,93058,780154,77041,96077%40%
Business operations specialists1,036,45065,960
Accountants and auditors1,106,98067,430843,16044,32031%52%
Financial analysts235,24085,240142,82056,34065%51%
Personal financial advisors149,46094,18079,97064,68087%46%
Loan officers298,20063,210200,18045,21049%40%
Computer software engineers880,70093,395496,63066,00577%41%
Network and computer systems administrators338,89070,930204,68050,09066%42%
Aerospace engineers70,57096,27071,79064,550-2%49%
Biomedical engineers14,76082,5506,45052,430129%57%
Chemical engineers29,00091,67028,63064,2501%43%
Civil engineers259,32081,180209,10055,66024%46%
Computer hardware engineers65,410101,41060,42066,9608%51%
Electrical engineers151,66086,250149,21061,5202%40%
Environmental engineers50,61080,75051,45057,050-2%42%
Industrial engineers209,30077,090155,91057,45034%34%
Mechanical engineers232,66080,580202,91057,01015%41%
Nuclear engineers16,710100,3509,58072,87074%38%
Petroleum engineers25,540119,9609,64072,780165%65%
Engineering technicians514,06049,496566,00038,593-9%28%
Biochemists and biophysicists22,86088,55011,81056,17094%58%
Zoologists and wildlife biologists17,46060,67011,12043,40057%40%
Biological scientists29,63069,430
Medical scientists101,76084,76021,20055,880380%52%
Life scientists12,32072,590
Atmospheric and space scientists8,32085,1607,17053,58016%59%
Environmental scientists83,53067,36053,61047,00056%43%
Market research analysts226,41067,50067,67052,680235%28%
Anthropologists and archeologists5,57057,2303,22037,01073%55%
Political scientists3,970101,0504,28072,860-7%39%
Social scientists29,25073,450
Biological technicians74,56041,14039,58032,06088%28%
Chemical technicians64,42043,90078,73036,080-18%22%
Social Services1,891,32042,7501,404,54031,64035%35%
Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors78,47040,42057,29028,56037%42%
Educational, vocational, and school counselors251,05055,030190,93041,49031%33%
Marriage and family therapists26,45049,02018,53035,66043%37%
Mental health counselors106,92041,71062,91029,43070%42%
Rehabilitation counselors112,69034,71093,13026,52021%31%
Child, family, and school social workers277,67043,540262,57031,7206%37%
Medical and public health social workers133,51048,340101,68035,40031%37%
Mental health and substance abuse social workers127,14041,35072,73031,15075%33%
Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists92,91050,50078,93038,03018%33%
Social and human service assistants344,05029,880242,53022,76042%31%
Judges, magistrate judges, and magistrates26,350103,99023,15067,15014%55%
Paralegals and legal assistants246,81050,080175,87036,55040%37%
Postsecondary teachers1,392,85073,387798,01052,42175%40%
Preschool teachers389,66027,450339,31019,61015%40%
Kindergarten teachers181,81050,380158,25036,77015%37%
Elementary school teachers1,544,30053,1501,357,34039,56014%34%
Middle school teachers665,42053,550570,01039,69017%35%
Secondary school teachers1,091,71055,150947,01041,43015%33%
Vocational education teachers92,98054,420107,33041,710-13%30%
Special education teachers477,31054,980410,41040,35716%36%
Adult literacy, remedial education, and GED teachers and instructors68,43050,39056,88032,80020%54%
Teacher assistants1,275,41024,2801,115,82017,40014%40%
Arts, Entertainment, Sports, and Media1,745,67051,7201,551,60037,65013%37%
Art directors31,66091,52019,19061,68065%48%
Multi-media artists and animators28,80062,81030,53041,330-6%52%
Commercial and industrial designers29,17061,40038,35047,910-24%28%
Fashion designers15,78074,4109,60052,58064%42%
Floral designers51,47024,94059,41018,980-13%31%
Graphic designers200,87047,820119,82036,21068%32%
Interior designers46,01051,99029,69038,36055%36%
Merchandise displayers and window trimmers61,28028,48051,53021,56019%32%
Producers and directors79,78086,87039,20047,230104%84%
Athletes and sports competitors13,62080,95010,62069,44028%17%
Coaches and scouts179,83035,74065,82032,010173%12%
Umpires, referees, and other sports officials14,86028,4908,15023,51082%21%
Music directors and composers14,33053,4106,31034,750127%54%
Musicians and singers47,260*46,44037,5102%
Radio and television announcers42,41038,86050,41025,640-16%52%
Reporters, correspondents, analysts51,95055,63064,59035,270-20%58%
Public relations specialists242,67059,370118,28040,780105%46%
Technical writers46,27065,61046,68046,940-1%40%
Writers and authors43,39064,56045,67045,500-5%42%
Audio and video equipment technicians46,07042,45039,09034,02018%25%
Sound engineering technicians15,56053,9409,38035,09066%54%
Camera operators, television, video, and motion picture17,54049,59017,33031,7301%56%
Film and video editors17,55063,68012,77044,38037%43%
Healthcare Practitioners7,200,95069,6906,001,95045,25020%54%
Dietitians and nutritionists53,22053,23041,32037,35029%43%
Family and general practitioners99,000168,550134,490104,090-26%62%
Internists, general48,270183,99048,740123,280-1%49%
Obstetricians and gynecologists20,380204,47018,780135,4309%51%
Pediatricians, general29,460161,41018,940112,76056%43%
Physician assistants76,90084,83056,75050,65036%67%
Registered nurses2,583,77066,5302,205,43044,47017%50%
Occupational therapists97,84070,68078,95051,91024%36%
Physical therapists174,49076,220131,05058,35033%31%
Medical and clinical laboratory technologists166,86055,620145,75039,31014%41%
Dental hygienists173,90067,86090,05048,15093%41%
Cardiovascular technologists and technicians48,07049,73041,49033,28016%49%
Diagnostic medical sonographers51,63063,64029,28043,76076%45%
Nuclear medicine technologists21,67068,45017,88042,43021%61%
Emergency medical technicians and paramedics217,92033,020172,36023,28026%42%
Dietetic technicians24,51028,53029,19021,000-16%36%
Pharmacy technicians331,89028,940196,43020,05069%44%
Veterinary technologists and technicians79,20030,58047,47021,43067%43%
Opticians, dispensing60,84034,79058,86025,1903%38%
Athletic trainers15,26044,02016,67033,650-8%31%
Healthcare Support3,886,69026,7102,970,78019,78031%35%
Home health aides955,22021,620577,53018,81065%15%
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants1,438,01024,9801,308,74017,86010%40%
Psychiatric aides62,61027,43051,10022,39023%23%
Massage therapists55,92039,78021,91028,740155%38%
Dental assistants294,02034,000175,16024,13068%41%
Medical assistants495,97029,450281,48022,65076%30%
Protective Services3,172,42041,7402,958,73029,6507%41%
Fire fighters305,50047,270252,73034,07021%39%
Correctional officers and jailers455,35042,610381,25031,07019%37%
Detectives and criminal investigators110,38065,86083,34047,62032%38%
Fish and game wardens7,53054,9508,22041,940-8%31%
Police and sheriff's patrol officers641,59055,180581,86038,71010%43%
Animal control workers15,32033,5608,30023,85085%41%
Private detectives and investigators31,25047,13030,69030,1202%56%
Security guards1,028,83026,4301,088,47018,610-5%42%
Crossing guards68,47025,43068,31017,8700%42%
Lifeguards, ski patrol, and other recreational protective service workers115,64020,490
Food Preparation and Serving11,218,26020,8809,687,97015,60016%34%
Chefs and head cooks94,30044,240118,07028,040-20%58%
Cooks, fast food539,52018,230418,40013,61029%34%
Cooks, institution and cafeteria383,54023,870438,66017,420-13%37%
Cooks, restaurant898,82023,110656,54017,73037%30%
Food preparation workers849,40020,420878,65015,740-3%30%
Waiters and waitresses2,302,07020,3802,039,95013,43013%52%
Cleaning and Maintenance4,269,48024,9704,274,20018,9100%32%
Maids and housekeeping cleaners887,89020,840913,47015,530-3%34%
Pest control workers63,50032,10040,24024,12058%33%
Landscaping and groundskeeping workers859,96025,340739,46019,38016%31%
Tree trimmers and pruners37,83032,09047,89023,770-21%35%
Personal Care and Service3,461,91024,6802,556,92020,30035%22%
Gaming dealers86,90020,29087,39014,120-1%44%
Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers104,36019,61088,59014,05018%40%
Amusement and recreation attendants257,35019,450190,60014,92035%30%
Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists349,21027,070314,75020,80011%30%
Baggage porters and bellhops49,38023,58059,58017,110-17%38%
Tour guides and escorts31,63025,99035,78020,100-12%29%
Flight attendants95,81043,350123,31047,910-22%-10%
Child care workers595,65020,940377,11015,43058%36%
Personal and home care aides630,74020,280300,50016,060110%26%
Fitness trainers and aerobics instructors228,17035,340127,31027,30079%29%
Counter and rental clerks416,95024,680392,56016,6906%48%
Parts salespersons208,35030,460265,38025,410-21%20%
Retail salespersons4,209,50024,6303,729,04019,21013%28%
Advertising sales agents152,42053,190142,83041,4007%28%
Insurance sales agents325,71061,330241,73047,69035%29%
Travel agents76,99032,450111,13024,660-31%32%
Demonstrators and product promoters80,91026,64095,16021,420-15%24%
Real estate brokers48,38078,36026,76062,19081%26%
Real estate sales agents151,55053,100107,68036,99041%44%
Door-to-door sales workers8,46026,32036,13028,940-77%-9%
Office and Administrative Support22,336,45032,99022,562,48025,310-1%30%
Bill and account collectors403,10032,560383,09024,8605%31%
Billing and posting clerks and machine operators493,78032,900551,41023,880-10%38%
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks1,757,87034,7501,619,87025,2509%38%
Customer service representatives2,195,86032,4101,789,62025,36023%28%
Receptionists and information clerks1,052,12026,010987,68019,8707%31%
Postal service mail carriers339,03048,940352,55036,610-4%34%
Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks715,13029,840886,23022,080-19%35%
Stock clerks and order fillers1,864,41023,4601,800,84019,6504%19%
Executive secretaries and administrative assistants1,361,17044,0101,316,29030,8703%43%
Agricultural inspectors14,03041,86010,52030,08033%39%
Graders and sorters, agricultural products40,16020,64062,38015,520-36%33%
Agricultural equipment operators22,42025,22017,63017,64027%43%
Farmworkers and laborers233,65019,780215,08014,1509%40%
Fishers and related fishing workers67026,600
Forest and conservation workers5,84029,41011,78020,120-50%46%
Logging equipment operators23,63032,87033,23025,310-29%30%
Log graders and scalers2,94035,5505,50026,180-47%36%
Construction and Extraction5,751,63043,3505,938,86033,650-3%29%
Brickmasons and blockmasons87,78049,25098,53041,380-11%19%
Cement masons and concrete finishers165,70039,410151,76031,2109%26%
Construction laborers856,44033,190763,45026,51012%25%
Construction equipment operators368,20044,180324,35034,76014%27%
Drywall and ceiling tile installers102,88041,080118,30034,090-13%21%
Painters, construction and maintenance214,24037,320260,88029,280-18%27%
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters400,97049,870413,17038,750-3%29%
Sheet metal workers146,69044,890231,69033,110-37%36%
Construction and building inspectors90,73053,55067,01039,74035%35%
Highway maintenance workers139,49035,310139,54026,7300%32%
Roustabouts, oil and gas61,32034,19029,86023,260105%47%
Installation, Maintenance, and Repair5,114,15042,2105,140,21032,810-1%29%
Telecommunications equipment installers189,85052,990172,70041,13010%29%
Security and fire alarm systems installers63,69039,83038,35030,81066%29%
Aircraft mechanics and service technicians112,13052,970125,97039,280-11%35%
Automotive service technicians and mechanics606,99037,880587,32030,1303%26%
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists232,81041,590273,32031,800-15%31%
Heating and air conditioning mechanics244,41043,670187,85032,04030%36%
Industrial machinery mechanics276,23046,160176,07036,21057%27%
Maintenance and repair workers, general1,268,93036,5201,201,69026,9306%36%
Telecommunications line installers and repairers162,40048,310158,99035,7902%35%
Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers193,57030,690387,43021,840-50%41%
Team assemblers997,39028,8401,302,82022,200-23%30%
Assemblers and fabricators, all other267,78032,280
Butchers and meat cutters125,51030,270138,87024,890-10%22%
Meat, poultry, and fish cutters and trimmers168,70022,900159,89017,3706%32%
Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic209,73030,480353,30023,640-41%29%
Welders, cutters, solderers, and brazers357,74036,630410,04027,870-13%31%
Laundry and dry-cleaning workers211,49020,790217,35015,760-3%32%
Power plant operators36,86060,27034,31043,1107%40%
Chemical plant and system operators45,75054,01064,32039,330-29%37%
Gas plant operators14,04055,86016,74043,080-16%30%
Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers430,45034,840577,65027,140-25%28%
Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers23,41036,62028,69026,360-18%39%
Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders338,92027,320379,76020,790-11%31%
Airline pilots, copilots, and flight engineers74,420117,06088,04098,280-15%19%
Commercial pilots29,18073,06018,78056,24055%30%
Air traffic controllers24,420106,99022,62073,1908%46%
Bus drivers, transit and intercity177,51035,990160,21026,45011%36%
Bus drivers, school459,48028,050463,86020,460-1%37%
Driver/sales workers363,05026,690385,21022,520-6%19%
Truck drivers, heavy and tractor-trailer1,550,93039,2601,558,40031,9000%23%
Truck drivers, light or delivery services834,78031,1201,085,05023,530-23%32%
Taxi drivers and chauffeurs167,74023,930119,63018,20040%31%
Locomotive engineers43,56053,59019,94048,050118%12%
Subway and streetcar operators6,05052,800
Sailors and marine oilers31,95037,31027,20025,82017%45%
Captains, mates, and pilots of water vessels30,45070,74020,66041,46047%71%
Parking lot attendants129,99020,600109,34015,35019%34%
Service station attendants79,48020,820109,05015,770-27%32%
Crane and tower operators40,77047,70053,83033,710-24%42%
Excavating and loading machine and dragline operators57,99038,54062,36031,460-7%23%
Industrial truck and tractor operators568,27031,240590,71025,650-4%22%
Cleaners of vehicles and equipment298,50022,110302,38016,650-1%33%
Freight, stock, and material movers2,135,79025,2902,035,64019,7505%28%
Packers and packagers, hand706,24021,7801,114,33016,280-37%34%
Refuse and recyclable material collectors128,94033,760135,32025,020-5%35%